Carassius auratus, Goldfish : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium, bait

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Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)

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Carassius auratus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335);  auratus: From the words carassius--Latin of karass (common name for these fishes in Eurasia) and auratus, meaning gilded (Ref. 10294).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6898). 亞熱帶的; 0°C - 41°C (Ref. 35682); 53°N - 22°N

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Asia: native in East Asia, China and Japan (Ref. 6390). Introduced elsewhere. throughout the world with reported adverse ecological impact after introduction.
亞洲: 中亞與中國 , 與日本.(參考文獻 6390) 在世界各處引入。 金魚的亞洲形式.(參考文獻 1739) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 27549); common length : 10.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9987); 最大体重: 1.6 kg (Ref. 128900); 最大年龄: 41 年 (Ref. 72468)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 3 - 4; 背的软条 (总数): 14-20; 臀棘 2-3; 臀鳍软条: 4 - 7; 脊椎骨: 30. Body stout, thick-set, caudal peduncle thick and short (Ref. 1998). Head without scales (Ref. 39167, 1998), broadly triangular (Ref. 1998), interorbital space broad, snout longer than eye diameter, maxillary reaching posterior nostril or not quite to eye (Ref. 39166), barbels lacking on upper jaw (Ref. 39104, 1998). Lateral line complete. Dorsal and anal fins with serrate bony spines, pelvic fins short, broad and thoracic. Nuptial tubercles of male fine, on opercle, sometimes on back and a few on pectoral fins. Hybridize readily with carp, hybrids intermediate in most characteristics (Ref. 1998). Caudal fin with 17-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Last simple anal ray osseous and serrated posteriorly; no barbels (Ref. 43281). Pigmentation: Wild-caught specimens, olive brown (Ref. 39168, 39104), slate olive, olive green, with a bronze sheen (Ref. 39104), silvery, grayish yellowish, gray-silver (Ref. 39169), through gold (often with black blotches) to creamy white (Ref. 1998); yellowish white or white below. Cultured forms vary through scarlet, red-pink, silver, brown, white, black and combinations of these colors (Ref. 39104).
身体矮胖的,粗的, 尾柄厚与短的.(参考文献 1998) 头部没有鳞片 (参考文献 39167,1998), 宽广三角形的 (参考文献 1998), 眼间隔宽的, 吻长度超过眼直径, 上颌骨达到后鼻孔或不完全到眼睛 (参考文献 39166) 触须缺乏在上颌上.(参考文献 39104,1998) 侧线完整。 背鳍与臀鳍有锯齿状的硬棘,腹鳍短的,宽的与胸廓的。 雄鱼的珠星细的, 在鳃盖上, 有时背面与一些在胸鳍上。 轻易地以鲤鱼杂交, 杂交大多数的特性介于两者之间.(参考文献 1998) 尾鳍有 17-19个鳍条。 (参考文献 2196) 最后单一的臀鳍鳍条骨的而且在后部地锯齿状的; 没有触须.(参考文献 43281) 颜色: 荒野捕捉的标本, 黄褐色的 (参考文献 39168,39104), 暗蓝灰色橄榄色,橄榄绿色的, 具有一个青铜色的光辉 (参考文献 39104), 银色的, 浅灰色的淡黄色的, 灰色-银色的 (参考文献 39169), 经过黄金 (时常有黑色的斑块) 对乳脂色的白色;(参考文献 1998) 黄白色或腹面白色的。 养殖型改变过深红色, 红色的-粉红的,银色的,和褐色,白色的, 黑色与这些颜色的组合.(参考文献 39104)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabit rivers, lakes, ponds and ditches (Ref. 5258, 10294) with stagnant or slow-flowing water (Ref. 30578). Occur in eutrophic waters, well vegetated ponds and canals (Ref. 59043). Live better in cold water. Feed mainly on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus (Ref. 59043). Goldfish lay eggs on submerged vegetation. Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808). Oviparous, with pelagic larvae. They last long in captivity (Ref. 7248). Maximum recorded salinity is 17 ppt (Ref. 39171), but unable to withstand prolonged exposure above 15 ppt (Ref. 39172, 39174). Used as an experimental species (Ref. 4537). Valued as ornamental fish for ponds and aquaria; edible but rarely eaten (Ref. 9987). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 100 cm (Ref. 51539). Reported individual hooked by an angler in a lake in Poole, Dorset measured 40 cm (16 in), weighing 2.3 kg (Practical Fishkeeping, 2010).

栖息于河,湖,池塘与沟渠 (参考文献 5258) 且水流污浊或缓慢的地方.(参考文献 30578) 捕食宽范围的食物包括厂,小型甲壳动物,昆虫,与碎屑。 (参考文献 5258) 他们更住在寒冷的水。 金鱼产卵在水中植物上。 卵生的, 仔鱼为大洋性的。 他们生存很久在繁殖场。 (参考文献 7248) 记录盐度的极大是 17个 ppt(参考文献 39171), 但是不能长时间忍受暴露于超过 15个 ppt.(参考文献 39172,39174) 用作了一个实验的种。 (参考文献 4537) 对于池塘與水族館可作為觀賞魚了; 可食用的但是很少吃.(參考文獻 9987) 水族館保持: 形成 5個或更多個體的群體; 水族館最小體型 100 公分.(參考文獻 51539)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Cold water temperatures during the winter months are necessary for proper ova development (Ref. 44091). Spawning takes place in shallow water among weeds, often where willow roots grow exposed in water (Ref. 39171), also meadows inundated by spring flood (Ref. 39176). Spawning activity begin just before dawn (Ref. 39168), to midafternoon (Ref. 39177). Individual fish spawn 3-10 lots of eggs at intervals of 8-10 days (Ref. 39180). Juveniles need high temperature to grow. Eggs are sticky, attached to water plants or submerged objects (Ref. 59043). Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808).亞洲: 中亞與中國 , 與日本.(參考文獻 6390) 在世界各處引入。 金魚的亞洲形式.(參考文獻 1739) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 130435)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 04 August 2010


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 高经济性; 诱饵: occasionally
FAO - 养殖: 产生; 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FishSource |



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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.01109 - 0.01496), b=3.03 (2.99 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.17; tm=1; tmax=30).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100).
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.