Ecology of Carassius auratus
Main Ref. Richardson, M.J., F.G. Whoriskey and L.H. Roy, 1995
Remarks Inhabit rivers, lakes, ponds and ditches (Ref. 5258, 10294) with stagnant or slow-flowing water (Ref. 30578). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). They live better in cold water. Maximum recorded salinity is 17 ppt (Ref. 39171), but unable to withstand prolonged exposure above 15 ppt (Ref. 39172, 39174). Goldfish prefer warm waters in lakes and slow flowing rivers (Ref. 30486). They usually live over soft, muddy river beds, in areas with soft submerged vegetation (Ref. 30486). Feed on a wide range of food including plants, small crustaceans, insects, and detritus (Ref. 5258, 10294). Feed on plants, insects, and detritus (Ref. 5258, 10411). Reported host of bodonid flagellate Cryptobia sp. (Ref. 26129).

Aquatic zones / Water bodies

Marine - Neritic Marine - Oceanic Brackishwater Freshwater
Marine zones / Brackish and freshwater bodies
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Carassius auratus may be found.


Substrate Soft Bottom: mud;
Substrate Ref. Pollard, D.A., L.C. Llewellyn and R.D.J. Tilzey, 1980
Special habitats vegetation
Special habitats Ref. Halwart, M. and M.V. Gupta, 2004


Associated with
Association remarks


Feeding type mainly plants/detritus (troph. 2-2.19)
Feeding type Ref. Man, S.H. and I.J. Hodgkiss, 1981
Feeding habit grazing on aquatic plants
Feeding habit Ref.
Trophic Level(s)
Estimation method Original sample Unfished population Remark
Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 2.00 2.00 0.00 Troph of adults from 1 study.
From individual food items 2.86 0.31 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
Ref. Dudgeon, D., 1983
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
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