Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; acqua dolce benthopelagico; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 15. Subtropical; 1°C - 36°C (Ref. 35682); 50°N - 25°N
North America: St. Lawrence - Great Lakes and Mississippi river basin; from Quebec to northern Mexico. Widely introduced. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 5723); common length : 19.1 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 12193); peso massimo pubblicato: 2.2 kg (Ref. 4699); Età massima riportata: 10 anni (Ref. 72462)
A dark blue or black "ear" on an extension of the gill cover called the opercular flap; a prominent dark blotch at the base of the dorsal fin, close to the tail; typically olive-green backs, with a blue or purplish sheen along the sides; faint vertical bars may be present along the sides; breeding males may have more blue and orange coloration on their flanks (Ref. 44091).
Adults are found frequently in lakes, ponds, reservoirs and sluggish streams (Ref. 5723, 10294); occur primarily in reservoirs in Hawaii; preferably live in deep weed beds (Ref. 5723). Active mainly during dusk and dawn. They feed upon snails, small crayfish, insects, worms and small minnows (Ref. 5723). Young feed on crustaceans, insects and worms (Ref. 5723, 10294).
Males guard the eggs for about 7 days (Ref. 93240).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale; Acquacoltura: commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si; Acquario: Commerciale
CollaboratoriImmaginiStamps, Coins Misc.SuoniCiguateraVelocitàModalità di nuotoArea branchialeOtolithsCervelliVista
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.01201 - 0.01662), b=3.13 (3.09 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (K=0.19-0.23; tmax=11).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 86 [50, 171] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.68 [0.94, 2.77] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.2, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.372 [0.153, 0.876] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.7 [10.2, 59.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.5 [5.9, 57.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.34 [0.84, 2.01] mg/100g (wet weight);