Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Emmelichthyidae
Etymology: Erythrocles: Greek, erythros = red + Greek, kleis, kleidos, anything used to close; collar bone (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Poll & Cadenat.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 90 - 300 m (Ref. 2683). Tropical; 34°N - 17°S, 98°W - 14°E
Western Atlantic: South Carolina, USA and Bahamas to Venezuela; also from some islands in the Caribbean like Saint Lucia (Ref. 9626). Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola (Ref. 6945); reported from Mauritania (Ref. 55783).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Neritic species (Ref. 27000). Adults occur near the bottom, over sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 26999). Feeds on larger zooplankton. Marketed fresh or frozen; also used as fish meal and source of oil. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 27000.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.8 - 24.2, mean 18 (based on 59 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00455 - 0.02767), b=3.05 (2.83 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .