Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 400 m (Ref. 50550). Temperate; 8°C - 30°C (Ref. 56557); 49°N - 2°N, 105°E - 155°E (Ref. 54432)
Western Pacific: southern Sakhalin Islands, Sea of Japan and Pacific coasts of Japan, and south to almost Canton/Taiwan; rare records (seems to represent stray fishes) off the coasts of Luzon and Western Mindanao, Philippines and from Manado and Ujung Pandang, Sulawesi, Indonesia (Ref. 189).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.5, range 10 - 11 cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); common length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); max. published weight: 45.00 g (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 56527)
soft rays: 13 - 18. Differs very little from the European anchovy (see E. encrasicolus) and can be identified from that description. Of other anchovies found in the southern part of its distribution, only species of Encrasicholina and Stolephorus are of similar appearance, but all have small spine-like pre-pelvic scutes (usually 2 to 7 scutes). Thryssa have compressed bodies and a keel of scutes along belly.
Occurs in large schools near the surface, mainly in coastal waters but as far out as over 1,000 km from the shore. Tends to move more northward and inshore in spring and summer. Juveniles associate with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114, 12115). Feeds on copepods, but also on other small crustaceans, molluscan larvae, fish eggs and larvae and diatoms. Marketed fresh and salted, processed into fishmeal and oil (Ref. 12484).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; bait: usually
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 8.1 - 23.3, mean 18.4 °C (based on 139 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00398 (0.00270 - 0.00587), b=3.10 (2.98 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.1 (1.0 - 1.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 16 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.05; tm=1-2; tmax=3).
Prior r = 1.18, 95% CL = 0.78 - 1.76, Based on 7 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 148 [56, 380] mg/100g; Iron = 0.698 [0.304, 1.783] mg/100g; Protein = 18.3 [16.8, 19.7] %; Omega3 = 1.57 [0.74, 3.39] g/100g; Selenium = 14.9 [5.6, 40.7] μg/100g; VitaminA = 7.51 [1.30, 42.67] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.939 [0.527, 1.630] mg/100g (wet weight);