Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Labridae
Etymology: Symphodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
See nomenclatural details in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Oct. 2012: Ref. 92135).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m. Subtropical; 47°N - 30°N, 6°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean, Black Sea and Sea of Azov.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 4.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122896); max. published weight: 81.69 g (Ref. 122896); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 4742)
Adults are found near rocks and eel-grass beds. A nest of seaweed (Cystoseria) built and kept by male. Feed on bryozoans, hydroids, tubicolous, worms, shrimps, amphipods and mollusks. Males grow faster than females (Ref. 4742). Undergoes sex reversal (Ref. 4742). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Undergoes sex reversal (Ref. 4742). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Males build dish shaped nests and guard the eggs (Ref. 205).
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4742)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 16.5 - 21.1, mean 18.9 °C (based on 421 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00970 - 0.01423), b=3.10 (3.06 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.64-0.95; tm=1-2; tmax=5).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 82.4 [40.9, 194.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.31 [0.73, 2.43] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [16.5, 21.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.25 [0.14, 0.47] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.9 [6.9, 29.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 64.9 [18.1, 260.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.49 [0.90, 2.88] mg/100g (wet weight);