Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Scombridae
(Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Scomberomorus: Latin, scomber = mackerel + Greek, moros = silly, stupid (Ref. 45335). More on author: Macleay.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 6390). Tropical; 7°S - 30°S, 112°E - 157°E (Ref. 168)
Western Pacific: southern Papua New Guinea and northern Australia, from Shark Bay, Western Australia to northern New South Wales. Reports of this species from Thailand and Malaysia are based on misidentifications.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 75 - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 168); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 168)
(total): 13 - 15;
soft rays: 19 - 22;
Vertebrae: 44 - 46. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Lateral line gradually curving down toward caudal peduncle. Intestine with 2 folds and 3 limbs. Swim bladder absent. Body covered with small scales. Juveniles (less than 10 cm) marked with 12-20 vertical bands which becomes less distinct or break into spots in larger fish.
Found more commonly around coastal headlands and rocky reefs but are also caught offshore (Ref. 6390). Juveniles (4.5 to 10 cm length) are commonly encountered during November along the beaches of Townsville, Queensland and grow to twice this size by January. They are pelagic predators, feeding exclusively on baitfish (sardines and herrings (Ref. 30572). Caught also with set lines aside from trolling with small lures or cut bait. Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 6390)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.9 - 28.7, mean 27.7 (based on 506 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.6; tm=1-2; tmax=12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .