Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic. Subtropical; 38°N - 15°N, 18°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: southern Spain to Senegal, including the Mediterranean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 6678)
Found in tropical to warm temperate coastal waters, but absent from islands of western Pacific. Often forming large groups swimming near the surface and quite destructive of commercial oyster and clam beds. Feeds on bottom-living mollusks, crustaceans and fishes. Seldom marketed. Ovoviviparous, gestation period up to one year with 2-6 embryos produced.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and B. Séret, 1990. Rhinopteridae. p. 71-72. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4441)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.1 - 21.7, mean 19.7 (based on 136 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.60 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .