Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Harengula: Old English haring, hering = mackerel, the fish Clupea harengus (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Subtropical; 34°N - 4°N, 90°W - 52°W (Ref. 188)
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (USA), Bahamas, Caribbean, Guianas (but no records to the south of this; no Brazilian specimens in the extensive collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Sao Paulo, Brazil).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.0, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Tooth plate on tongue and tooth plate behind it (basihyal and basibranchial tooth plates) very narrow, their width about 10 times in combined length, the basihyal tooth plate not bulging in front. Scales thin, loosely attached, easily shed. Tips of anterior dorsal fin rays dark. Reddish or orange spot behind upper end of gill (Ref. 26938). Body slender, with evenly curved upper and lower profiles (Ref. 7251).
Occur in coastal waters, usually along the shoreline (Ref. 9710) and over clear coral reefs (Ref. 5217). May form large schools in beaches, mainly over Thalassia beds (Ref. 5217). Often in polluted areas (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 28, mean 26.7 °C (based on 104 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00600 - 0.01591), b=3.06 (2.92 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.41-1.03; tm=1.5; Fec=41,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 61 [30, 139] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.51 [0.80, 2.74] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.5 [19.4, 21.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.374 [0.201, 0.717] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.4 [9.0, 38.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 40.4 [12.2, 133.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.963 [0.606, 1.595] mg/100g (wet weight);