Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 125 m (Ref. 114953). Temperate; 19°S - 40°S, 112°E - 147°E (Ref. 114953)
Eastern Indian Ocean: endemic to western and southern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 84.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Occurs near the shore and on the continental shelf from coastal fringe. Common on sandy beaches and seagrass beds (Ref. 006871, Ref. 114953). Mainly feeds on decapod crustaceans and small bony fishes. Females produces litters up to 16 pups. Maturity size for males at ca. 65 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Juveniles are caught with seines.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.3 - 26.7, mean 18.3 (based on 218 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00268 - 0.01955), b=2.99 (2.76 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .