Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 36453). Tropical; 30°N - 44°S, 98°W - 26°W
Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to northern Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 80009); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 29.50 g (Ref. 118626)
Occurs mainly in brackish or hyper-saline lagoons (Ref. 5217), on sandy-muddy bottoms of estuaries and in the littoral zone where it hides itself leaving just its eyes out. Can easily disguise itself in the environment. Feeds on worms, crustaceans and small fishes. Juveniles have a brief planktonic life, moving quickly to the benthic stage. Its growth rate is relatively slow (Ref. 35237).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.5 - 28.1, mean 27.2 °C (based on 937 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.01041 - 0.01523), b=3.13 (3.08 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 66.8 [29.3, 138.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.683 [0.369, 1.436] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.4 [15.9, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.189 [0.075, 0.431] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.3 [12.1, 77.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 75.5 [14.8, 311.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.38 [0.84, 2.24] mg/100g (wet weight);