Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Decapterus: Greek, deka = ten + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 100 m (Ref. 2683), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 45°N - 35°S, 98°W - 20°E
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada (Ref. 7251) southward through the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to South Africa, including the Madeira, Canary, Cape Verde, Ascension and St. Helena islands (Ref. 7097).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3277); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 300.00 g (Ref. 26340)
Adults inhabit neritic waters, often near sandy beaches (Ref. 5217). A shoaling species, generally near the bottom (Ref. 27121). They feed on planktonic invertebrates, primarily copepods, but also on gastropod larvae, ostracods and pteropods (Ref. 3277). Spawning occurs well offshore year-round (Ref. 26938). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). A good food fish (Ref. 9626). Caught commercially and used mainly for bait.
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.-C. Quéro and M. Desoutter, 1990. Carangidae. p. 729-755. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7097)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.5 - 27.8, mean 24.3 °C (based on 900 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00755 - 0.01745), b=2.98 (2.85 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.32; tm<1; Fec=28,600).
Prior r = 1.20, 95% CL = 0.79 - 1.80, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 175 [49, 568] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.36 [0.89, 6.63] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.7 [20.4, 22.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.39 [0.18, 0.84] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.9 [9.6, 92.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 40.7 [9.6, 165.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.931 [0.503, 1.734] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.