Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Rhinidae
Etymology: Rhynchobatus: Greek, rhingchos = snout + Greek, batis, -idos = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335); immaculatus: Name from Latin 'im' meaning not and 'macula' for spot, mark; based on the lack of a dark pectoral marking (rather than any white spots) which is otherwise present in small individuals of other nominal species of Rhynchobatus..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic. Subtropical; 23°N - 25°N, 120°E - 122°E (Ref. 114953)
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Northwest Pacific: confirmed from Taiwan; probably more widespread.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 99.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94805)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This medium-sized species is distinguished by the following set of characters: snout is broad, and wedge-shaped; preoral snout 19-21% TL; small eye, its length 4.1-4.5 in preorbital snout; interorbital space 2.6-2.9 in preorbital snout; about 48 tooth rows; no spines from snout; supraorbital spines are small, well differentiated, and extending from preorbit to beyond end of spiracle; predorsal spines are relatively well developed; 2 disjunct rows of 6-9 small scapular spines on each side of the disc; predorsal space 48-49% of total length; origin of the first dorsal fin is well behind origin of pelvic-fin bases; total pectoral-fin radials 65-68; vertebrae with 28-30 monospondylous precaudal centra, 124-131 precaudal free centra, 38-42 diplospondylous caudal (free) centra, 165-170 total free centra, 179-184 total centra (including synarcual centra). Colouration: dark greenish brown dorsally with a few white spots scattered on pectoral disc; no black pectoral marking; prominent row of white spots start just forward of a single white spot (above pelvic-fin origin) and coalescing posteriorly to form a white mid-lateral line on tail; orbital membrane is white with dark bar over eye; no alternating light and dark markings on the interorbital space (Ref. 94805).
A benthic species that was recently discovered and not well known, but apparently lives in shallow water on the continental shelf. Probably feeds on bottom-dwelling crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 114953). Specimens caught are all immature that most probably the maximum length of this medium-size wedgefish could be less than 150 cm TL (Ref. 94805).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R., H.-H. Ho and R.-R. Chen, 2013. A new species of wedgefish, Rhynchobatus immaculatus (Chondrichthyes: Rhynchobatidae), from Taiwan. Zootaxa 3752(1):185-198. (Ref. 94805)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5049 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100).