Teleostei (teleosts) > Characiformes
(Characins) > Hepsetidae
Etymology: Hepsetus: Greek, epsetas, -e, -on = boiled, but there is the following sentence: "oí epsetoi" = certain fishes, and also could be related to "psetta" = grouper (Ref. 45335); odoe: The specific name refers to the local names in the Adangme language of Hepsetus specimens in Ghana: 'Akawo nyagbe', which means 'dog-like teeth' and 'akawo' which means 'attacker' or 'predator' (Ref. 88135).
More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 6.0 - 7.5; dH range: ? - 18; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 26°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060)
Africa: easternmost part of West Africa, from the Sassandra River, Ivory Coast, in the west to the Shari River, Central African Republic, in the east; and southwards up to the Kribi River in Cameroon (Ref. 88135). Reports from outside this area refer to other species of Hepsetus (Ref. 88135, 93279, 93907, 108775).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 44.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83624)
soft rays: 12;
Vertebrae: 45 - 49. Diagnosis: This species is distinguished from all other Hepsetus species by the following unique combination of characters: number of lateral line scales low, 43–51; nostril-lower jaw distance short, 36.6–42.1% of head length; number of gill rakers high, 17–23; number of scales between dorsal fin and lateral line 7.5-9.5; number of scales between adipose fin and lateral line 4.5-6.5; head width broad, 32.8–42.3% of head length; and internasal distance high, 21.9–28.3% of head length (Ref. 88135).
This species seems to prefer upper river courses or small rivers where Hydrocynus species are absent or scarce (Ref. 81278).
Builds a free-floating bubblenest.
Decru, E., E. Vreven and J. Snoeks, 2012. A revision of the West African Hepsetus (Characiformes: Hepsetidae) with a description of Hepsetus akawo sp. nov. and a redescription of Hepsetus odoe (Bloch, 1794). J. Nat. Hist. 46(1-2):1-23. (Ref. 88135)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00390 - 0.00706), b=3.13 (3.04 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.71 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 0.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.27-0.59; tmax=5; Fec < 10,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 164 [63, 392] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.04 [1.02, 4.59] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [16.8, 21.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.362 [0.132, 0.962] g/100g ; Selenium = 120 [47, 340] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.6 [5.4, 40.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.47 [0.99, 2.21] mg/100g (wet weight);