Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Ginsburg.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 18 - 170 m (Ref. 26268), usually 20 - 60 m (Ref. 26268). Subtropical; 37°N - 20°N, 90°W - 55°W (Ref. 26268)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina to Palm Beach in Florida, USA; also Gulf Coast of Florida. Also recorded from Nova Scotia, Canada (Ref. 26268) and French Guiana (Ref. 27233).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Inhabits bays and shallow coastal waters. Collected primarily on live-bottom habitats. Found in estuarine rivers (Ref. 27233).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.3 - 27.5, mean 24.7 (based on 130 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00574 - 0.02638), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .