Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 26 - 183 m (Ref. 2850), usually ? - 30 m (Ref. 2850). Subtropical; 37°N - 27°N, 123°W - 112°W
Eastern Pacific: Santa Cruz in central California, USA to Punta Abreojos, Baja California; including northern Gulf of California and Guadalupe Island in Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4690); max. reported age: 21 years (Ref. 56049)
Usually occurs in rocky areas of bays and along shore, especially in caves and crevices (Ref. 2850). Prefers depths less than 26 m (Ref. 121641). An excellent food fish (Ref. 2850). Venomous spines in the dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins (Ref 13513). Minimum depth range based on occurrence (Ref. 121641).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.9 - 22.4, mean 20.8 °C (based on 10 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.01171 - 0.03398), b=3.07 (2.92 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 8.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.12-0.3; tmax = 21; tm = 2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 92.1 [43.7, 215.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.02 [0.56, 1.86] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.2, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.511 [0.249, 1.326] g/100g ; Selenium = 34 [17, 80] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.1 [7.5, 53.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.794 [0.547, 1.194] mg/100g (wet weight);