Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous; depth range 5 - 366 m. Subtropical; 50°N - 26°N
Western Atlantic: Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to northeastern Florida in USA; also in northwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6330); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6330)
Inhabits seagrass beds in bays and estuaries, but also enters fresh water (Ref. 7251). Resident in estuaries during spring through fall, migrates into near shore continental shelf waters during winter. Found in waters of 4-17 °C. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Lazzari, M.A. and K.W. Able, 1990. Northern pipefish, Syngnathus fuscus, occurrences over the Mid-Atlantic Bight continental shelf: evidence of seasonal migration. Environ. Biol. Fishes 27(3):177-185. (Ref. 6330)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.5 - 20.4, mean 4.9 °C (based on 199 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00028 (0.00012 - 0.00064), b=3.21 (3.03 - 3.39), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .