Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous? (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 6733). Subtropical; 45°N - 30°N, 10°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: southern Biscay to Gibraltar, and also the Mediterranean and Black seas. Introduced and became established in the former USSR. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6733)
Euryhaline, found among detritus or vegetation over sand or mud, within a temperature range of 8° to 24°C. Probably an amphidromous species (Ref. 51243) but migratory behavior needs verification. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Early free-living young measure 23 mm TL (Ref. 6733).
Females lay 10-60 eggs into a brood pouch on ventral surface of tail of males. Males fertilize the eggs as they enter the pouch. Eggs incubate in the male´s brood pouch for about 20-32 days, depending of temperature. (Ref.59043).
Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.2 - 21.4, mean 18.8 °C (based on 552 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00025 (0.00020 - 0.00031), b=3.23 (3.18 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 231 [110, 526] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.48 [1.39, 4.31] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [16, 18] % ; Omega3 = 0.652 [0.323, 1.387] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.9 [12.8, 72.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.7 [4.9, 62.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.3 [0.9, 2.1] mg/100g (wet weight);