Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Scombridae
(Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Thunnus: Greek, thynnos = tunna (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m. Tropical; 47°N - 31°S, 34°E - 154°E (Ref. 54923)
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to New Guinea, north to Japan, south to Australia. Reported in New Zealand (Ref. 89192).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 145 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 70.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 168); max. published weight: 35.9 kg (Ref. 168); max. reported age: 19 years (Ref. 97108)
Vertebrae: 39. A small species, deepest near the middle of the first dorsal fin base. The second dorsal fin is higher than the first dorsal fin; the pectoral fins are short to moderately long; swim bladder is absent or rudimentary. Lower sides and belly silvery white with colorless elongate oval spots arranged in horizontally oriented rows. The dorsal, pectoral and pelvic fins are blackish; the tip of the second dorsal and anal fins are washed with yellow; the anal fin is silvery; the dorsal and anal finlets are yellow with grayish margins; the caudal fin is blackish, with streaks of yellow green.
Predominantly neritic species avoiding very turbid waters and areas with reduced salinity such as estuaries. May form schools of varying size. Feeds on a variety of fishes, cephalopods, and crustaceans, particularly stomatopod larvae and prawns (Ref. 9684). Marketed mainly fresh and dried salted (Ref. 9684), but also smoked, canned and frozen (Ref. 9987).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13 - 28.4, mean 26.5 °C (based on 1398 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00798 - 0.03007), b=2.97 (2.81 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.32; assuming tm=2-4; tmax=18.7; Fec>1M).
Prior r = 0.32, 95% CL = 0.21 - 0.49, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 62 [34, 110] mg/100g ; Iron = 3 [1, 7] mg/100g ; Protein = 23.5 [22.0, 24.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.314 [0.191, 0.517] g/100g ; Selenium = 99.5 [29.3, 421.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 66.1 [4.5, 635.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.59 [0.32, 1.15] mg/100g (wet weight);