Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 15 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 61°N - 43°N, 11°W - 13°E
Northeast Atlantic: Bergen, Norway and southern portions British Isles to Bay of Biscay.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 106276)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Snout cylindrical. Pectoral and caudal fins present. With 13-15 bony plates between head and dorsal fin (Ref. 35388). Caudal fin somewhat angulous, diamond shaped (Ref. 59043).
Often found on sandy shores among floating or attached seaweeds (Ref. 6733). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Spawns in summer. Young are sometimes caught pelagically in the North Sea (Ref. 35388).
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.4 - 12.5, mean 10.7 (based on 317 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00036 (0.00019 - 0.00068), b=3.13 (2.97 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.75).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .