Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes
(Salmons) > Salmonidae
(Salmonids) > Thymallinae
Etymology: Thymallus: Greek, thymallos, -ou = a kind of fish similar to salmon (Ref. 45335); thymallus: The name 'thymallus' could come from the thyme taste of the flesh of this fish (Ref. 30578). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 20 - ?; non-migratory; depth range 15 - ? m (Ref. 30578). Temperate; 6°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 70°N - 42°N, 6°W - 66°E
Europe: Barent Sea basin west of Urals, Caspian, Black, Baltic, White and North Sea basins, Atlantic westward to Loire drainage; Rhône drainage; northern Adriatic basin east to Soca drainage. Introduced over most of southern and central Finland. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. published weight: 6.7 kg (Ref. 6368); max. reported age: 14 years (Ref. 556)
(total): 5 - 8;
soft rays: 9 - 10;
Vertebrae: 57 - 61. Distinguished from Thymallus arcticus by the following unique characters: maxillary usually reaching anterior margin of eye; pelvic fin grey, lacking red stripes; body without red spots; dorsal fin greyish, with parallel rows of round dark spots; gill rakers 19-30, averaging about 24-26 (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 to 21 rays (Ref. 2196).
Inhabits submontane reaches of rivers with a hard sand or stone bottom and well oxygenated, cold and fast-flowing water (Ref. 59043). Prefers running, well-oxygenated waters of rivers (Ref. 30578). In Scandinavia, it occurs in clear lakes and freshened part of northern Baltic basin. Usually lives in hollows behind boulders and shaded water under overhanging vegetation (Ref. 59043). Gregarious, forms schools (Ref. 2196). Feeds mainly on insects (Ref. 9696), nymphs, small worms and crustaceans (Ref. 30578). Breeds in shallow stretches, usually 20-40 cm deep, or riffles, with moderate current of about 0.5 m/s and clean gravel bottom (Ref. 59043). Can be captured with natural bait (insect larvae) or with artificial fly. Very sensitive to pollution (Ref. 30578).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00563 - 0.01070), b=3.06 (2.97 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.42 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.5 (3.7 - 8.5) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 16 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.12-0.26; tm=2-6; tmax=14).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 32.4 [11.2, 120.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.532 [0.185, 1.505] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.1, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 1.59 [0.64, 4.59] g/100g ; Selenium = 55.4 [15.9, 184.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.2 [4.1, 64.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.698 [0.352, 1.429] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.