分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性. 溫帶; 10°C - 25°C (Ref. 13614); 65°N - 45°N, 12°E - 69°E
Europe and Asia: large rivers draining to Black, Azov, Caspian and Aral Seas. Introduced or native to Northern Dvina drainage (White Sea basin) where it is presently spreading from warmer upper reaches (Vychegda system) northward. Introduced in River Volkhov (a tributary of Lake Ladoga), in Rhine in 1995 and invasive in Vistula drainage, coming from Black Sea basin through Prypet-Bug canal (connecting Dniepr and Vistula drainages).
歐洲與前蘇聯: 多瑙河，第聶伯河，蟲，聶伯河，頓河，庫邦河，窩瓦河， Kama ， Vyatka ，烏拉河與 Terek 的流域; 也在 Volkhov 河中。
大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 27368); common length : 15.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556)
Differs from Ballerus ballerus by having small and inferior mouth, 47-54 scales on lateral line, and large eye, about equal to snout length (Ref. 59043).
Occurs in fast flowing rivers. Eastern, brackish populations enter the lower reach of rivers for spawning (Ref. 1441). Inhabit large lowland rivers and estuaries. Active at night. Prey on benthic invertebrates. Semi-anadromous populations forage in large brackish-water habitats in estuaries around Black Sea. Spawn in large aggregations in fast-flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Usually rare and threatened due to water pollution (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
Spawn in large aggregations in fast flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Semi-anadromous individuals begin spawning migration in November in Kura (Ref. 59043). Sticky eggs attach themselves to stones or plants (Ref. 9953).歐洲與前蘇聯: 多瑙河，第聶伯河，蟲，聶伯河，頓河，庫邦河，窩瓦河， Kama ， Vyatka ，烏拉河與 Terek 的流域; 也在 Volkhov 河中。
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
合作者照片Stamps, Coins Misc.声音神经毒速度泳型鳃区Otoliths脑重体重比眼睛色素
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00590 - 0.01775), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 12.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=4).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .