Ballerus sapa (Pallas, 1814)

White-eye bream
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Image of Ballerus sapa (White-eye bream)
Ballerus sapa
Female picture by Otel, V.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
  More on author: Pallas.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性.   溫帶; 10°C - 25°C (Ref. 13614); 65°N - 45°N, 12°E - 69°E

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Europe and Asia: large rivers draining to Black, Azov, Caspian and Aral Seas. Introduced or native to Northern Dvina drainage (White Sea basin) where it is presently spreading from warmer upper reaches (Vychegda system) northward. Introduced in River Volkhov (a tributary of Lake Ladoga), in Rhine in 1995 and invasive in Vistula drainage, coming from Black Sea basin through Prypet-Bug canal (connecting Dniepr and Vistula drainages).
歐洲與前蘇聯: 多瑙河,第聶伯河,蟲,聶伯河,頓河,庫邦河,窩瓦河, Kama , Vyatka ,烏拉河與 Terek 的流域; 也在 Volkhov 河中。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 27368); common length : 15.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

Differs from Ballerus ballerus by having small and inferior mouth, 47-54 scales on lateral line, and large eye, about equal to snout length (Ref. 59043).

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in fast flowing rivers. Eastern, brackish populations enter the lower reach of rivers for spawning (Ref. 1441). Inhabit large lowland rivers and estuaries. Active at night. Prey on benthic invertebrates. Semi-anadromous populations forage in large brackish-water habitats in estuaries around Black Sea. Spawn in large aggregations in fast-flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Usually rare and threatened due to water pollution (Ref. 59043).

在快速的流动河中。 东方又半咸淡的族群进入河的下面范围进行产卵。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawn in large aggregations in fast flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Semi-anadromous individuals begin spawning migration in November in Kura (Ref. 59043). Sticky eggs attach themselves to stones or plants (Ref. 9953).歐洲與前蘇聯: 多瑙河,第聶伯河,蟲,聶伯河,頓河,庫邦河,窩瓦河, Kama , Vyatka ,烏拉河與 Terek 的流域; 也在 Volkhov 河中。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 119314)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 自给性渔业
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00595 - 0.01759), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=4).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.