ऐकटीनोप्टीरेजी (रेज़-फिन्नढ मछलियाँ)
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Pellonula: Latin, pellis = skin + Latin, nullus = no one (Ref. 45335); leonensis: Species is named after the vernacular name in Bambara, 'miri', given by the local fisherman in Mali (Ref. 2756). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; समुद्री; स्वच्छ जल, अलवण जल; खारा पिलाजिक; ऐनाढरोमस (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 17°N - 5°S, 18°W - 24°E (Ref. 26213)
Africa: freshwater rivers of West Africa (Ref. 188, 2244), in lagoons, lakes, lower and upper courses of rivers from Senegal to Cross River (Ref. 81269), including upper reaches of Niger and lower parts of Benue River (Ref. 188); and lagoons and lower and middle courses of coastal rivers from Cameroon to Democratic Republic of Congo (Ref. 2244, 81631), including a record in the Léfini River (Ref. 88782). Apparently not in upper parts of Congo system (Ref. 188). Also reported from Atlantic Ocean, including beaches at Hann near Dakar in Senegal and near Pointe Noire in Congo Republic (Ref. 188).
Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 3 - ? cm
Max length : 12.1 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 1989); अधिकतम प्रकाशित वज़न: 13.50 g (Ref. 2247)
पृष्ठीय रीढ़ (सम्पूर्ण): 0; पृष्ठीय सौफट रेज़ (सम्पूर्ण): 13-19; गुदा कांटा 0; ऐनल सौफट रेज़: 15 - 22; जानवरों की रीड़ का जोड़: 39 - 44. Diagnosis: This species is characterised by the first prepelvic scute being as large as the following scutes lacking ascending arms, and located behind the pectoral-fin origins, and by the inward-curving premaxillary teeth (Ref. 2244, 2849, 81269, 81631). Scutes beginning behind base of first pectoral finray; lower jaw very slightly projecting, teeth at symphysis only slightly enlarged; premaxillary teeth small, curved inward, only the tips usually apparent, no strongly marked indentation at centre of jaw; lower gillrakers 20-35, long and equal to or longer than the corresponding gill filaments; silver stripe along flank (Ref. 188, 81269). It resembles Pellonula vorax, which has larger and straighter teeth, often pointing forward, and scutes before pectoral fin bases; absence of large canine teeth in upper jaw, within or behind normal outer premaxillary series, distinguishes it from Odaxothrissa; Microthrissa species are deep-bodied and have a much more slender maxilla (Ref. 188).
Found chiefly in rivers and streams, also man-made and natural lakes (Ref. 188); also in estuaries and lagoons (Ref. 188, 2683). Apparently able to tolerate moderate or even quite high salinities (Ref. 188). It forms enormous shoals in both inshore and offshore regions of Lake Kainji (Ref. 3034). It feeds on terrestrial and aquatic insects, but also ostracods and entomostracans; stomachs containing clupeid fish scales may represent cannibalism (Ref. 188). Reproduction occurs in rivers and lakes, and may be also in estuaries and coastal lagoons (Ref. 2683). It breeds from July to September in Lake Volta (Ref. 188).
Reproduction occurs in rivers and lakes, and may be also in estuaries and coastal lagoons (Ref. 2683).
Gourène, G. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Révision du genre Pellonula des eaux douces africaines (Pisces: Clupeidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 2(3):213-225. (Ref. 2244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
मात्स्यिकी: लघु वाणिज्य; ठहराव / प्रलोभन: occasionally
संदर्भजलीयकृषिजलीयकृषि रूपरेखाखींचआनुवंशिकीऐल्लि आवृतियाँहैरेटिबिलटीबीमारीप्रक्रमणMass conversion
सहयोगीयोतस्वीरेStamps, Coins Misc.ध्वनिसिगुयटिरारफ्तारतैरने के प्रकारगिल क्षेत्रOtolithsदिमागदृष्टि
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 27.9, mean 26.7 (based on 62 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00784 - 0.01061), b=3.03 (2.99 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; Based on food items.
लौटाव (Ref. 120179
): ऊंचा, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी समय अवलागत 15 महीने। (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .