Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Percoidei
() > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); nigrum: nigrum meaning black (Ref. 10294). More on author: Rafinesque.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: ? - 15. Temperate; 4°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 59°N - 32°N
North America: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins from Hudson Bay to southern Mississippi in the USA, and from Quebec in Canada and from Virginia in the USA to Saskatchewan in Canada and Colorado in the USA; and on Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages in the USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 3.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 12193)
Occur in sandy and muddy, sometimes rocky, pools of headwaters, creeks, and small to medium rivers; and in sandy shores of lakes (Ref. 5723, 10294); also found in streams (Ref. 10294). Adults feed on midge larvae, mayfly nymphs, caddis larvae, and microcrustaceans; young on entomostracans and tiny midge larvae (Ref. 10294). Eggs are found clustered on underside of stone and guarded by males (Ref. 7043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are found clustered on underside of stone (Ref. 7043). Males guard the eggs (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00237 - 0.01272), b=3.14 (2.94 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.95; tmax=4; Fec=47-691).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .