Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 5.8 - 7.8; dH range: ? - 20. Tropical; 23°C - 27°C (Ref. 1672)
South America: Amazon River basin.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111697)
Adults live in sand holes of fast-flowing creeks. Feed on plants, fruits and leaves (Ref. 36801). Distinct pairs breed on densely grown weedy places (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairs breed on densely grown weedy places (Ref. 205). From Breder and Rosen (1966), on what appeared to be nest building, the fish excavated a cavity in the sand and then paved it with small stones which were carried to the pit in their mouths. When this was finished, the pair floated over the construction and engaged in an animated love play (Ref. 205).
Garavello, J.C. and H.A. Britski, 2003. Anostomidae (Headstanders). p. 71-84. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00538 - 0.01546), b=3.07 (2.92 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.15 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).