Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 12 m (Ref. 11890), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 23°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and Mozambique Island (Ref. 4329) to Samoa and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia; throughout Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4329)
soft rays: 9. Semi-transparent to whitish in color with blue spots and incomplete, narrow, orange bars on head and anterior part of body (Ref. 2334). Tall first dorsal fin, eyes blue (Ref. 48635). Elongate first dorsal fin; greatest depth of body 2.1-2.6 in SL (Ref. 90102).
Dense aggregations (often mixed with other species, like Archamia fucata, A. zosterophora are found above mounds of branching coral Porites cylindrica in sheltered, often turbid bays and lagoons (Ref. 1602, 48635). Nocturnal species (Ref. 7300).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205). Displays obligate monogamy where a one-to-one pair is established irrespective of resource abundance (Ref. 52884).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.6 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2597 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00690 - 0.03171), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 204 [108, 401] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.06 [0.65, 2.03] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.175 [0.094, 0.321] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.2 [10.7, 49.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 76.5 [22.7, 271.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.75 [1.11, 2.73] mg/100g (wet weight);