Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Trygonorrhinidae
(Banjo rays, Fiddler rays)
Etymology: Zapteryx: Greek, za = an aumentative particle + Greek, pteryx, wing, fin (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Müller & Henle.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 50 m (Ref. 114953). Subtropical; 20°S - 40°S, 58°W - 47°W (Ref. 114953)
Southwest Atlantic: from northern Argentina to southern Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 42.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 53.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 115173); 59.3 cm TL (female); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077); max. published weight: 758.00 g (Ref. ); max. published weight: 758.00 g
Obtuse snout, broader heart shaped disc. Olive to brownish gray above, without definite markings, dorsal and caudal darker than general ground tint, margins of pectoral and pelvic fins paler. Lower surface grayish or yellowish white, posterior corners of pectoral fins and tips of pelvic fins more or less dusky (Ref. 6902).
This benthic inshore species is found over soft bottoms to at least 50 m; feeds on benthic crustaceans and polychaetes. Gestation last about a year, produces litters of 1-8 pups in autumn (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Maturity size for males at 43-45 cm TL, females at 42-48 cm TL; birth size at 13-16 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00312 - 0.01219), b=2.96 (2.77 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 55.1 [8.5, 191.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.08 [0.30, 2.97] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [17.2, 21.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.407 [0.203, 0.820] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.4 [6.0, 63.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.4 [4.7, 28.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.679 [0.335, 1.467] mg/100g (wet weight);