Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Xenobalistes: Greek, xenos = strange + Greek, ballo = to throw (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Pacific: Mariana Islands and Japan (Ryukyu Is.).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124446)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 24. This species possess the following characters: body relatively elongate and rather deep and compressed; a prominent lateral protuberance on each side just below pectoral fins; dorsal profile of head ascending from mouth to just before eye, continuing with a gentle incline to first dorsal spine; eye large, located posteriorly on head; supraorbital ridge is well developed and expanded dorsolaterally; a short shallow groove before eye, below nares which are close together just in front of eye; gill opening almost vertical, without enlarged osseous scales behind dorsal end of gill opening; the first dorsal spine long and stout, originating over gill opening; its anterior surface covered with two rows of downward directed small barbs; proximal part of the dorsal spine with several rows of smaller barbs, the second dorsal spine slender, much less than the first in length; third dorsal spine short, extending slightly above dorsal contour of body; the second dorsal and anal fins are almost oppositely placed, with origin of anal fin slightly posterior to that of second dorsal fin; both fins slightly rounded; rounded pectoral and caudal fins; body scales with numerous, erect, rough, flat-topped tubercles (Ref. 124446).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Matsuura, K., 2001. Balistidae. Triggerfishes. p. 3911-3928. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9770)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01232 - 0.05364), b=2.94 (2.77 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .