Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Xanthichthys: Greek, xanthos = yellow + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 25 - 80 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 37°N - 33°S, 89°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: from South Carolina (USA), through Gulf of Mexico to Lesser Antilles.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
soft rays: 23 - 27. Three prominent diagonal grooves running from below and behind mouth nearly to gill opening; light brownish gray with rows of dark brown spots on body; grooves on head dark brown; caudal fin pale with orange-red upper and lower borders and a large orange-red crescent posteriorly (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits seaward reef slopes, usually well below 30 m, where in some places they are among the most common fish. Young live among floating Sargassum. Solitary or in small groups. Feeds on crabs and sea urchins. Spawns in deep water (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20 - 27.6, mean 25.2 °C (based on 60 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01232 - 0.05364), b=2.94 (2.77 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.29 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 57.6 [21.8, 121.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.75 [0.46, 1.49] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.4, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.141 [0.067, 0.290] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.8 [14.7, 62.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 92.7 [29.3, 306.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.05 [0.68, 1.67] mg/100g (wet weight);