Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 10 - ? m. Subtropical; 32°N - 17°N
Eastern Central Pacific: Gulf of California. Formerly abundant, now threatened by extinction due to fishing and habitat change (Ref. 27438). International trade banned (CITES I, since 4.2.1977).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9118); max. published weight: 100.0 kg (Ref. 32717); max. reported age: 24 years (Ref. 32373)
Found in coastal waters; juveniles in river mouths and near rocky coasts (Ref. 9118). Feed on fishes and shrimps (Ref. 9118).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N., 1995. Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.8 - 26.7, mean 22.5 °C (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00429 - 0.01851), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.70 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.3; tm=7; tmax=15).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .