Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Synapturichthys: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, aptein = to join + Greek, oura = tail + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 20 - 460 m (Ref. 5304). Subtropical; 44°N - 32°S
Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean: Mediterranean south to Durban, South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 29.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3200); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms; mainly in shallow water (Ref. 3200).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Desoutter, M., 1990. Soleidae. p. 1037-1049. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5304)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13 - 24.2, mean 15.9 °C (based on 348 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00655 - 0.01598), b=2.99 (2.86 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 3.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .