(Mackerels) > Scombridae
(Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Acanthocybium: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, kybion. -ou = a tunna (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
marino; oceanodromo (Ref. 51243); distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 20 m (Ref. 89972), usually 0 - 12 m (Ref. 5227). Subtropical; 59°N - 48°S, 180°W - 180°E
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans: in tropical and subtropical waters, including the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas.
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm 99.3, range 85 - 105 cm
Max length : 250 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 30573); common length : 170 cm FL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 9340); peso massimo pubblicato: 83.0 kg (Ref. 168)
Spine dorsali (totale): 23 - 27; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 12-16; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 12 - 14; Vertebre: 62 - 64. Mouth large with strong, triangular, compressed and finely serrate teeth. Snout about as long as the rest of head. Posterior part of maxilla completely concealed under preorbital bone. Gill rakers absent. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Swim bladder present. Body covered with small scales. No anterior corselet developed. The back is iridescent bluish green; the sides silvery with 24 to 30 cobalt blue vertical bars which extend to below the lateral line.
An oceanic, epipelagic species frequently solitary or forming small loose aggregations rather than compact schools. Feed on fishes and squids. Eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 6769). An important sport fish in some areas (Ref. 9340). Marketed fresh, salted or spice-cured slices of meat; also frozen (Ref. 9987). Flesh of very good quality (Ref. 9684). Minimum depth from Ref. 005227.
Spawning seems to extend over a long period; fish in different maturity stages are frequently caught at the same time.
Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298)
Pesca: commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.2 - 27.6, mean 24.7 °C (based on 46871 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00198 - 0.00384), b=3.17 (3.07 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (K=0.34; tm=1-2 y; tmax >4; Fec=6 million).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 34.8 [17.2, 70.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.34 [0.70, 2.53] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.8 [20.5, 23.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.183 [0.092, 0.379] g/100g ; Selenium = 28 [13, 64] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.92 [2.08, 25.10] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.423 [0.273, 0.649] mg/100g (wet weight);