Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ Sống nổi và đáy; Mức độ sâu 0 - 56 m (Ref. 11004), usually ? - 9 m (Ref. 1998). Subtropical; 0°C - 30°C (Ref. 35682); 66°N - 30°N, 124°W - 59°W (Ref. 86798)
North America: Atlantic, Arctic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from Nova Scotia to Mackenzie River drainage, Northwest Territories in Canada, and south to Ohio, Illinois and Nebraska in the USA; south in Atlantic drainages to Savannah River in Georgia, USA.
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm 19.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 9988); common length : 19.1 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 12193); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 1.9 kg (Ref. 40637); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 11 các năm (Ref. 12193)
Inhabits lakes, ponds, pools of creeks, and rivers. Also found in brackish water and in salt lakes. Most commonly found in clear water near vegetation; tends to shoal near the shore during spring (Ref. 9988, 10294). Feeds on immature insects, larger invertebrates, fishes and fish eggs during the day. Preyed upon by fishes and birds (Ref. 1998). Spawns between February and July in the northern hemisphere and between August and October in the southern hemisphere (Ref. 10999). Neither anterolateral glandular groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406). Marketed fresh or frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled or baked (Ref. 9988).
Nonobligatory plant spawner.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
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Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00920 - 0.01501), b=3.05 (2.98 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.7 (3.1 - 4.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 24 growth studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (K=0.17-0.19; tmax=11).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 30.3 [13.5, 69.8] mg/100g; Iron = 0.379 [0.205, 0.696] mg/100g; Protein = 17.5 [16.4, 18.6] %; Omega3 = 0.157 [0.070, 0.345] g/100g; Selenium = 18.5 [6.2, 51.4] μg/100g; VitaminA = 26.1 [11.2, 61.2] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.785 [0.530, 1.181] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.