Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; agua dulce; salobre bentopelágico; rango de profundidad 0 - 56 m (Ref. 11004), usually ? - 9 m (Ref. 1998). Subtropical; 0°C - 30°C (Ref. 35682); 66°N - 30°N, 124°W - 59°W (Ref. 86798)
North America: Atlantic, Arctic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from Nova Scotia to Mackenzie River drainage, Northwest Territories in Canada, and south to Ohio, Illinois and Nebraska in the USA; south in Atlantic drainages to Savannah River in Georgia, USA.
Length at first maturity / Tamaño / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm 19.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 9988); common length : 19.1 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 12193); peso máximo publicado: 1.9 kg (Ref. 40637); edad máxima reportada: 11 años (Ref. 12193)
Inhabits lakes, ponds, pools of creeks, and rivers. Also found in brackish water and in salt lakes. Most commonly found in clear water near vegetation; tends to shoal near the shore during spring (Ref. 9988, 10294). Feeds on immature insects, larger invertebrates, fishes and fish eggs during the day. Preyed upon by fishes and birds (Ref. 1998). Spawns between February and July in the northern hemisphere and between August and October in the southern hemisphere (Ref. 10999). Neither anterolateral glandular groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406). Marketed fresh or frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled or baked (Ref. 9988).
Nonobligatory plant spawner.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Pesquerías: comercial; pesca deportiva: si; Acuario: Acuarios públicos
Fuentes de Internet
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00969 - 0.01561), b=3.04 (2.97 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nivel trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.7 (3.1 - 4.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 24 growth studies.
Resiliencia (Ref. 120179
): Medio, población duplicada en un tiempo mínimo de 1.4-4.4 años (K=0.17-0.19; tmax=11).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 30.3 [13.5, 69.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.379 [0.205, 0.696] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [16.4, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.157 [0.070, 0.345] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.5 [6.2, 51.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 26.1 [11.2, 61.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.785 [0.530, 1.181] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.