Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; Água doce; estuarina bentopelágico; intervalo de profundidade 0 - 56 m (Ref. 11004), usually ? - 9 m (Ref. 1998). Subtropical; 0°C - 30°C (Ref. 35682); 66°N - 30°N, 124°W - 59°W (Ref. 86798)
North America: Atlantic, Arctic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from Nova Scotia to Mackenzie River drainage, Northwest Territories in Canada, and south to Ohio, Illinois and Nebraska in the USA; south in Atlantic drainages to Savannah River in Georgia, USA.
Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 19.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 9988); common length : 19.1 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 12193); peso máx. publicado: 1.9 kg (Ref. 40637); idade máx. registrada: 11 anos (Ref. 12193)
Inhabits lakes, ponds, pools of creeks, and rivers. Also found in brackish water and in salt lakes. Most commonly found in clear water near vegetation; tends to shoal near the shore during spring (Ref. 9988, 10294). Feeds on immature insects, larger invertebrates, fishes and fish eggs during the day. Preyed upon by fishes and birds (Ref. 1998). Spawns between February and July in the northern hemisphere and between August and October in the southern hemisphere (Ref. 10999). Neither anterolateral glandular groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406). Marketed fresh or frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled or baked (Ref. 9988).
Nonobligatory plant spawner.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 126983)
Uso pelos humanos
Pescarias: espécies comerciais; peixe esportivo: sim; Aquário: Aquários públicos
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00920 - 0.01501), b=3.05 (2.98 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.7 (3.1 - 4.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 24 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.17-0.19; tmax=11).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 30.3 [13.5, 69.8] mg/100g; Iron = 0.379 [0.205, 0.696] mg/100g; Protein = 17.5 [16.4, 18.6] %; Omega3 = 0.157 [0.070, 0.345] g/100g; Selenium = 18.5 [6.2, 51.4] μg/100g; VitaminA = 26.1 [11.2, 61.2] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.785 [0.530, 1.181] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.