Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 6205). Tropical; 27°N - 30°S, 33°E - 148°E (Ref. 6205)
Indo-Pacific: South Africa, northward to Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Indonesia, northern New Guinea, Thailand, Philippines, and Taiwan. Not recorded from southern New Guinea or Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6205)
(total): 12 - 13;
soft rays: 22 - 23;
Vertebrae: 35. The first ray of the pelvic fin is modified into a laterally compressed thickened club-like structure. The swim bladder is reduced in size. There is no duct-like process from the ventral surface to the urogenital aperture.
Inhabit shallow coastal waters (Ref. 6205). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Marketed fresh (Ref. 6205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
McKay, R.J., 1992. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.5 - 29.3, mean 28.7 (based on 1629 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00371 - 0.01125), b=3.09 (2.93 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .