Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Rhinobatidae
Etymology: Rhinobatos: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, batis, -idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Compagno & Randall.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range ? - 150 m (Ref. 100719). Tropical; 29°N - 12°N, 32°E - 66°E (Ref. 114953)
Western Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aqaba, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, Muscat (Oman) to Pakistan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 88.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Demersal inshore on continental shelf to 70 m depth. Feeds on small crustaceans and fishes. Matures at ca. 62 cm TL; born at ca. 25 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Produces litters of up to 7 pups (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Randall, J.E. and L.J.V. Compagno, 1995. A review of the guitarfishes of the genus Rhinobatos (Rajiformes: Rhinobatidae) from Oman, with description of a new species. Raffles Bull. Zool. 43(2):289-298. (Ref. 11293)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 28.5, mean 26.4 (based on 364 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00204 (0.00130 - 0.00320), b=3.11 (2.97 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .