Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
(Skates) > Rajinae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Regan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 100 - 400 m (Ref. 3167). Subtropical
Northeast Atlantic: known only from the western Mediterranean, more common along the African coasts.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3167)
Found mainly on soft bottoms (Ref. 3167). Feed mainly on crustaceans and bony fishes depending on the sex, size and also partly with the season (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). About 20-62 eggs are laid by an individual in a year (Ref. 41314).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Ripe females occurring mostly in the winter and deposit 20 to 62 egg-cases per year depending on size (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Y oung may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.1 - 15.1, mean 14 (based on 40 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00158 (0.00087 - 0.00288), b=3.29 (3.14 - 3.44), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 10.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .