Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 24°N - 9°S, 78°E - 117°E (Ref. 188)
Indo-Pacific: Indian Ocean (eastern coasts of India, possibly also coasts of Myanmar), Singapore and Java Sea (south coast of Kalimantan, also Bagan Api Api, Sumatra).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 81 - 93. Body elongate, with strongly convex lower profile bearing a sharp keel of 33 to 38 scutes. Lower jaw prominent, mouth pointing obliquely upward; upper jaw short, not reaching beyond eye center. Anal fin very long, its origin well before midpoint of body. A dark spot behind gill opening.
A marine species, or perhaps more commonly estuarine (e.g. Aluhaluh on the Barito River in Kalimantan, Indonesia). Feeds mainly on prawns (especially Acetes), but also on copepods. More specimens and data needed.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.7 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 580 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00377 - 0.01751), b=3.05 (2.87 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .