Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 5.0 - 6.0; dH range: 10 - ?; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 24°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060)
South America: Uruguay, Paraná-Paraguay, Orinoco, and Amazon River basins.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 36687); max. published weight: 34.2 kg (Ref. 85107)
Found in freshwater rivers. It is an extremely dangerous species. Maximum length reported in Axelrod et al., 1991 (Ref. 6398) is 100 cm TL.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
16 pups were born by one female in captivity (Ref. 57489).
Ortega, H. and R.P. Vari, 1986. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (437):1-25. (Ref. 6329)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4716)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=16).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (83 of 100) .