Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Pellonula: Latin, pellis = skin + Latin, nullus = no one (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic; anadromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 13°N - 13°S
Africa: lagoons and lower parts of rivers from Liberia to Angola (Ref. 188, 2244, 28136, 81269, 81631), also in Guinea-Bissau (Ref. 3033); however it seems to be absent in the area between Ghana and Niger River Delta (Ref. 2244, 28136), except for Lake Nokoué (Ref. 81269). This species was not observed far upstream rivers (Ref. 2244), although it has been found recently in Léfini River, part of Middle Congo River basin (Ref. 88782). The type locality of the syntypes of the nominal species Pellonula stanleyana, 'Stanley Falls' (Ref. 2263), seems to be an erroneous locality (Ref. 188), and should be 'Cette Cama [= Sette Cama]' in Gabon (Ref. 2244).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 16 - 21;
Vertebrae: 42 - 43. Diagnosis: The species is characterised by the first prepelvic scute better developed and longer than the following scutes, and located in front of the base of the first pectoral ray, and by the outward-curving premaxillary teeth (Ref. 2244, 2849, 81269, 81631). Scutes beginning at isthmus, the first usually long, 20-25 in total; lower jaw slightly projecting, teeth at symphysis large in large fishes; pre-maxillary teeth strong, fairly straight, pointing forward in some fishes and an indented toothless gap at centre of jaw; lower gillrakers 24-37, long, usually equal to or longer than corresponding gill filaments; silver stripe along flank (Ref. 188, 2849, 81269). It resembles Pellonula leonensis, which has small and inward-curving teeth and no pre-pectoral scutes; absence of large canine teeth in the upper jaw, within or behind normal outer pre-maxillary series, distinguishes it from Odaxothrissa, which lack pre-pectoral scutes (Ref. 188).
Found in rivers and streams (Ref. 188). It forms large schools in lower courses of rivers (Ref. 2244, 43836), and is very abundant in brackish water habitat (Ref. 86940).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gourène, G. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Révision du genre Pellonula des eaux douces africaines (Pisces: Clupeidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 2(3):213-225. (Ref. 2244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00449 - 0.01939), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec < 1,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .