Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; pelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; - 13°S
South America: Amazon system (Iquitos on Peruvian Amazon and Ambyiacos River in Ecuador to Manáos and perhaps Pará), the Guianas (Lake Amuku area where the Amazon and Essequibo systems join in wet years).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 7.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 34 - 38. Belly with 23 or 24 + 8 to 11, total 33 or 34 scutes. Lower jaw projecting; upper jaw with a toothed hypo-maxillary bone between hind tip of pre-maxilla and lower bulge of maxilla blade; lower gill rakers 12 to 14 (in fishes of 20 to 50 cm standard length). Pelvic fins with a distinct axillary scale; anal fin long, its origin under dorsal fin base. Scales fairly small.
Occurs in rivers, apparently not entering the sea, although presumably tolerating at least some salinity at the Amazon mouth. More data needed.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00573 - 0.01590), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (55 of 100) .