Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 12 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical
Western Atlantic: southern Florida, USA and Bahamas to northern South America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6937)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 13 - 14. The dark spot (deep greenish blue in life) of the dorsal fin usually found between the 2nd and 4th or 5th dorsal spines; body densely mottled with dark brown and flecked with blackish; caudal fin and posterior part of dorsal fin are yellow with rows of small blackish spots (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits rock and sand bottoms or the eroding edges of weed beds. Egg mass incubated in mouth of males (Ref. 5521).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Are mouthbrooders (Ref. 39363).
Böhlke, J.E. and C.C.G. Chaplin, 1993. Fishes of the Bahamas and adjacent tropical waters. 2nd edition. University of Texas Press, Austin. (Ref. 5521)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 28.2, mean 27.4 °C (based on 651 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .