Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range ? - 130 m (Ref. 9790). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: southern Japan, South China Sea, Philippines, Indonesia, northwest shelf of Australia and Andaman Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790)
soft rays: 11 - 13. Infraorbital ridge smooth over front half of eye, serrated posteriorly. Suborbital ridge with a distinct smooth notch below middle of eye. Antorbital margin with 2 antrorse spines. Lower side of head unicarinate. Lateral line scales frequently 37 or 38, anterior scales 2-10 (usually 2-5) scales bearing spines. Iris lappet bearing numerous short branches with bifurcate tips. Upper surface of eye with a short, branched cirrus.
Taken by trawling over sand and mud bottoms to 130 m (Ref.9790).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sainsbury, K.J., P.J. Kailola and G.G. Leyland, 1985. Continental shelf fishes of the northern and north-western Australia. An illustrated guide. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research; Clouston & Hall and Peter Pownall Fisheries Information Service, Canberra, Australia. 375 p. (Ref. 3131)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.8 - 28.9, mean 27.6 °C (based on 1408 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00435 - 0.01153), b=2.93 (2.78 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .