Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Myliobatidae
(Eagle and manta rays)
Etymology: Myliobatis: Greek, mylo = mill + Greek, + Greek, batis,-idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 108 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 43°N - 5°S, 126°W - 85°W (Ref. 55258)
Eastern Pacific: Oregon, USA to Gulf of California (Ref. 2850) and the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 28023).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 180 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); common length : 100.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 9257); max. published weight: 82.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Commonly found in sandy and muddy bays and sloughs, also on rocky bottom and in kelp beds (Ref. 2850). Sometimes buries itself in sand (Ref. 2850). Found singly or in schools (Ref. 12951). Feeds on bivalves, snails, polychaetes, shrimps, and crabs (Ref. 9257). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Venomous spine on tail. Not fished commercially, but shows up as by-catch species (Ref. 9257).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and G. Notarbartolo di Sciara, 1995. Myliobatidae. Aguilas marinas. p. 765-768. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9257)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.4 - 23, mean 20.6 °C (based on 34 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00119 - 0.01269), b=3.09 (2.83 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 11.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=3; tmax=23; k=0.09-0.22).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .