Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Monodactylidae
(Moonyfishes or fingerfishes)
Etymology: Monodactylus: Greek, monos = one + Greek, daktylos = finger (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 12 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672); 31°N - 42°S, 19°E - 169°W
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 7293), including the Persian Gulf (Ref. 96822) to Samoa, north to the Yaeyamas, south to New Caledonia and Australia (Ref. 4959). Known from the freshwater tidal zone of the Mekong delta (Ref. 12693).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
(total): 7 - 8;
soft rays: 27 - 32. Adults bright silver with yellow and dusky dorsal fin tip. Small juveniles more colorful with yellow over most of the dorsal fin and two vertical black bands over the head (Ref. 48636). Fins yellow except pectoral translucent. Eyes large, mouth small (Ref. 90102).
Found in bays, mangrove estuaries, tidal creeks, and lower reaches of freshwater streams (Ref. 2847, 44894, 48636); occasionally in silty coastal reefs (Ref. 9710). Feeds on plankton and detritus (Ref. 5213, 44894). Commonly seen in schools (Ref. 44894); small juveniles either solitary or in small aggregations (Ref. 48635). Highly territorial (Ref. 9710). Caught with throw nets (Ref. 30573).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1984. Monodactylidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 3. FAO, Rome. [pag. var.]. (Ref. 7293)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 28.8, mean 27.6 °C (based on 638 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5781 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03020 (0.01781 - 0.05121), b=2.97 (2.82 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.33 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 180 [94, 353] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.56 [0.86, 2.96] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [16.1, 18.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.507 [0.236, 1.094] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.2 [15.9, 85.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 19.9 [6.1, 60.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.75 [1.14, 2.68] mg/100g (wet weight);