Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes
(Silversides) > Atherinopsidae
(Neotropical silversides) > Menidiinae
Etymology: Menidia: Greek, menoeides, -es, -es = like a half noon shape (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Hubbs & Raney.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; pH range: 6.6 - 6.8; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 35°N - 34°N
North America: occurs only in the Lake Waccamaw in North Carolina, USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 3.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 4.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 3.00 years (Ref. 12193)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 10 - 17;
soft rays: 16 - 22;
Vertebrae: 41 - 45. Silvery-white with black melanophores surrounding each scale on the dorsal two-thirds of the body. The dorsal half of the body is almost translucent.
Usually occur in large schools near surface in open water, over dark sandy bottom (Ref. 35360). Well adapted to a life of heavy predation (Ref. 35360). Frequent skipping over the water surface is observed apparently in avoidance of predators (Ref. 35360).
Based on otolith data, these species spawn after their first winter and that only a small segment of the population lives through the second winter (Ref. 35360).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.04-1.36; tmax=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .