Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Notothenioidei
(Icefishes) > Nototheniidae
(Cod icefishes) > Nototheniinae
Etymology: Lepidonotothen: Greek, lepis = scale + Greek, noton = back + Greek, adverbial particle, then, that denotes distance or remova (Ref. 45335); squamifrons: squamifrons from Latin squama scale, plus frons, frontis forehead for its full upper head cover of small scales (Ref. 11892) More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 10 - 900 m (Ref. 11892), usually 195 - 312 m (Ref. 11892). Temperate; 0°C - ; 45°S - 79°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 5179)
Southern Ocean: South Georgia Island and Bouvet Island. Also known from sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctic Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 19 - 36 cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5179); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2121); max. reported age: 19 years (Ref. 5789)
Feeds chiefly on macrozooplankton (mainly crustaceans, cnidarians and salps) and midwater fishes.
Dewitt, H.H., P.C. Heemstra and O. Gon, 1990. Nototheniidae. p. 279-331. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5179)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.3 - 2.8, mean 1.7 °C (based on 21 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00384 - 0.00545), b=3.24 (3.19 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.52 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08-0.12; tm=7-9; tmax=19; Fec = >10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 20.4 [11.9, 35.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.257 [0.167, 0.399] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.6 [13.9, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.566 [0.330, 0.985] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.4 [8.0, 30.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 35.7 [12.5, 104.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.551 [0.400, 0.758] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.