Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Kyphosidae
(Sea chubs) > Kyphosinae
Etymology: Kyphosus: Greek, kyphos = bent (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 2 - ? m (Ref. 35942). Tropical; 37°N - 41°S, 17°E - 109°W
Indo-Pacific: Antitropical; Red Sea, South Africa, western and eastern Australia, Lord Howe and Rapa islands, southern Japan and Ryukyu Islands. Records for countries in the tropical zone needs further confirmation.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 36.0, range 34 - 38 cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); max. published weight: 1.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
Found around exposed seaward reefs of isolated high islands such as the northernmost Mariana and Bonin Is. Feeds on Sargassum and Turbinaria algae. Valued as a food fish, but not in Hawaii (Ref. 3921).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Knudsen, S.W. and K.D. Clements, 2013. Revision of the fish family Kyphosidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Zootaxa 3751(1):001-101. (Ref. 95491)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29.2, mean 28.1 (based on 3109 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00805 - 0.02980), b=2.99 (2.82 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .