Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gonorynchiformes
(Milkfish) > Kneriidae
Etymology: Kneria: From Kner, that studied fishes in the Imperial Museum of Vienna, with Jean Natterer (1817) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
Africa: Cuanza (Atlantic coastal) (Ref. 1869, 120641) and (southern) Congo basin (Ref. 11970, 120641) in Angola. Also reported from the upper Lualaba in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ref. 45616).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 45616)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 11 - 12. Diagnosis: body elongated, 5.66-6 times longer than deep (Ref. 45616). Body depth equal to head length, the latter 5.33 times in total length; eye lateral, visible from below as well as from above, its diameter 3.33 times in head length; sides and lower surface of head with conical horny tubercles; males with cupshaped apparatus on operculum, much larger than eye, and followed, on scapular region, by a large lamellar pad (18-19 lamellae) (Ref. 1869). Dorsal fin with 7 branched rays (Ref. 1880), originating well beyond vertical of base of pelvic fins (Ref. 1869, 45616). Anal fin with 8-9 branched rays (Ref. 1880). Caudal fin deeply notched, crescentic; pale brownish above, yellowish beneath, with scattered dark brown dots and a series of round blackish spots, connected by a dark brown lateral band, just above the lateral line; fins uniform whitish (Ref. 1869). A black dot at base of pelvic fins (Ref. 1880).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poll, M., 1984. Kneriidae. p. 129-133. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3565)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .